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Pollination in Fruit Trees


hummingbird pollination flowers

Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of a blossom to the female part of a blossom. Fertilization occurs within the ovary when a sperm cell from a pollen grain unites with an egg to produce an embryo which then develops into a seed. After fertilization, the ovary that contains the seed(s) develops into a fruit. Without pollination, there can be no fruit.

bee pollen almonds cross pollination

Busy bee on an almond blossom

A pollinator carries the pollen from the male stamen to the female pistil. Even if the stamens and the pistil are within the same blossom, a pollinator is still needed to complete the transfer. The pollinator can be an insect, a bat, a hummingbird, or even the wind. Many plants have flowers that require specific pollinators. For example, almond trees depend entirely on honey bees for pollination, and cherry trees are also almost totally dependent on honey bees.

Some kinds of plants have blossoms that are incompatible with their own pollen, and must therefore be cross-pollinated with pollen from another, closely related variety (or, in some cases, another individual of the same variety). Most apple varieties, for example, are self-unfruitful and must be pollinated by a different apple variety if fertilization (and fruit development) is to occur. Perfect Plants has several varieties of apple trees that will cross pollinate with each other here.

persimmon flowers fruit trees pollination

Persimmon tree with male flowers on the right (notice the stamens inside) and female flowers that just started fruiting on the left.

Persimmon blossoms are either male or female, and a pollinator is required to transfer pollen from the male to the female. The plant that donates pollen to another plant is called the pollenizer.

Note that the fruit that develops after cross pollinating will always be of the variety that received the pollen, and not similar to the plant that donated the pollen.

cross pollination bees apple trees

In contrast, the seeds within the fruits that develop from cross pollination will be hybrids between the two parents and will likely germinate to produce plants with characteristics that are intermediate between the two parents, or even quite different from both. For example, if a ‘Red Delicious’ apple is pollinated by a ‘Granny Smith’ apple, the fruits will all be ‘Red Delicious’, but the seeds within those fruits will produce apple trees with different (often unpredictable) characteristics than either parent. Of course, pollination can go both ways, and while the bees are carrying pollen from the ‘Granny Smith’ to the ‘Red Delicious’, they also move pollen from the ‘Red Delicious’ to the ‘Granny Smith’.

 

Pollination Requirements of Some Cultivated Fruit Trees

FRUIT TREEPOLLENIZER REQUIREDPOLLINATORS
Pecanyesthe wind
Applemost varietiesinsects, especially honeybees
Olivesome varietiesvarious insects
Fignonone required
Peachsome varietiesvarious insects
Pearyesinsects, especially honeybees
Banananonone required
Persimmonyes, a male treeinsects, especially honeybees
Plummostinsects, especially honeybees
Pomegranatenoinsects, especially honeybees

 

 

We have 2 other blogs with valuable information about pollination listed below…

It Takes Two to Tango (Except When it Doesn’t)

Flowers: Sex, Pollinators and Pollinizers

 

 

Perfect Plants does have several varieties of fruit trees that are self-pollinating and produce fruit without a second tree to pollinize the flowers.

 

Please reach out to us with any questions you may have about cross pollinating your fruit trees. We would be happy to help!

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