The major types of blueberries grown in the United States are lowbush (hybrids and cultivars of Vaccinium angustifolium); highbush (hybrids and cultivars of V. corymbosum),and rabbiteye (hybrids and cultivars of V. ashei). (Crosses between lowbush and highbush – called half-high – have recently been introduced as well.)
The lowbush blueberry is native to Canada and the far northern US. Lowbush blueberries are recommended for USDA zones 2-6, and make up only a small portion of North American blueberry culture. In fact, lowbush blueberries are harvested from wild plants more often than not. They do not exceed 2’in height, and there are just a handful of commercial cultivars available. Some are grown as ground covers, and some in containers. Lowbush varieties must be cross-pollinated by another lowbush or highbush cultivar if they are to produce berries. The state of Maine is very well known for having w ild lowbush plants.
Highbush blueberries are native to most of the eastern US, and are divided into northern and southern types. Northern highbush blueberries are recommended for Zones 4-7, and southern highbush cultivars (created by crossing V. corymbosum and V. darrowii) for zones 6-10. Check your zone here.
Highbush blueberry hybrids and cultivars (both northern and southern) tend to be more disease resistant than other blueberry varieties. Highbush cultivars are self-fertile and will produce berries without a pollenizer. (However, cross pollination by another cultivar usually increases production.) Highbush blueberry varieties are the mainstay of the commercial blueberry industry, and the most popular varieties for home gardeners.
The rabbiteye blueberry is native to the southeastern US, and the various rabbiteye hybrids and cultivars are recommended for zones 6 or 7 through 9. Rabbiteyes thrive in climates with long hot summers and mild winters. With recent weather patterns changing and late winter freezes happening more frequently in the southern states, some varieties have experienced early bloom times and thus crops have been affected as seen in Tifton, Georgia (where the Tifblue blueberry was created.) Read more about this phenomenon here. Rabbiteye blueberries require a different rabbiteye cultivar for cross-pollination.
Home gardeners choose which particular blueberry varieties to grow based on many considerations, but the most important ones should be climate zone; chill hours (the total number of hours in winter when the temperature is between 30°F and 45°F – check with your extension agent); ripening season (early, mid-, or late – an assortment insures a long harvest season); berry flavor, berry size, productivity, and bush size.
There are hundreds, if not thousands, of blueberry cultivars available. The table below compares a few of the more popular ones. Perfect Plants is proud to offer 5 types of Rabbiteye blueberries.
|Variety||Zones||chill hours||ripening season||bush height||Pollenizer||Notes|
|Northern High Bush Types|
|Bluecrop||4-7||800||mid||4-6′||none required, but another var increases production||med to large berries; machine harvest; most planted mid-season var.|
|Bluegold||4-7||800||mid||3-5′||none required, but another var increases production||med to large berries;|
|Blueray||3-7||800||early to mid||5-6′||none required, but another var increases production||large and abundant berries; excellent flavor|
|Duke||4-7||900||early||4-6′||none required, but another var increases production||high yield; very sweet berries; said to be best early season var.|
|Elliott||5-8||300-800||very late||5-7′||none required, but another var increases production||large berries but can be tart|
|Jersey||4-7||800||late||5-7′||none required, but another var increases production||small to medium size berries; said to have the best flavor berries|
|Patriot||3-7||950||early to mid||3-6′||none required, but another var increases production||very large berries; very cold hardy; excellent fall color|
|Earliblue||4-9||700-1000||early||6-8′||none required, but another var increases production||medium yield|
|Southern High Bush Types|
|Misty||5-9||300-500||early||4-6′||Sharpblue recommended||medium size berries|
|O’Neal||5-9||400||early||4-6′||none required, but another var increases production||large size berries|
|Sharpblue||7-10||200-300||early||5-6′||Misty recommended||main crop in Florida|
|Jewel||6-10||300-400||early||6-8′||none required, but another var increases production||largest berries of the southern highbush varieties|
|Gulf Coast||7-10||200-350||mid||5-6′||none required, but another var increases production||medium size berries;|
|Georgia Gem||7-9||350-400||mid||4-6′||none required, but another var increases production||medium size berries;|
|Reveille||6-9||500-600||early to mid||5-6′||none required, but another var increases production||medium size berries; high yields; machine harvest|
|Brightwell||6-9||350-400||mid||6-10′||Climax, Premier||mediumm size, abundant berries|
|Climax||7-9||450-500||early||6-15′||Powderblue, Brightwell, Tifblue||large berries|
|Powderblue||7-9||550-600||mid to late||6-15′||Climax, Brightwell, Tifblue||one of our favorites here at the nursery|
|Premier||6-9||550||early||6-10′||Climax, Brightwell, Tifblue||large berries; excellent flavor|
|Tifblue||6-9||550-650||mid to late||6-15′||Climax, Brightwell, Powderblue||excellent flavor; main commercial berry in South|
|Beckyblue||6-9||350||early||6-15′||Climax, Premier||large berries; excellent flavor|
|Ochlockonee||7-9||550-650||very late||6-12′||Brightwell, Powderblue|
|Woodard||7-9||300-350||early||5-8′||Brightwell, Climax, Premier||Very popular and productive variety|
|Pink Lemonade||4-9||300-350||mid to late||4-5′||none required, but another var increases production||medium yields of pinkish berries|
Perfect Plants also offers an Assortment of 3 Blueberry Plants for best cross pollination to get your blueberry garden up and running. You’ll have plenty of berries in no time with this package deal!
Want more information?
Check out our Blueberry Grow Guide for more useful information about planting and harvesting blueberries. Do you have blueberry plants and they are not producing fruit? Check out this blog post for more information and troubleshooting your blueberry bushes.